This PowerPoint includes critical notes, exciting visuals, great review games, challenge questions, and a neat activity that requires students to camouflage a gecko template and then hide it in the school. I work in a K-8 school and we have the elementary students participate in a "Great Gecko Hunt".
Also included is a find the camouflaged animal somewhere in the slide. This quiz challenge is a great hook for the rest of the lesson. Students then explore the different kinds of mimicry and see many great examples. The resemblance of an animal species to another species or to natural objects.
Looking like another species that is dangerous or may taste bad. A really neat activity has students pretend to be birds and eat different flavored Cheerios some good some gross. There is a mimic, and the model. Students then participate in a beat the butterfly man challenge that has student try to guess the non toxic butterfly from a series of slides.
Students try to beat The Butterfly Man. This sounds crazy but it is easy to follow and the students love it. This is achieved in various ways:.
Both camouflage and mimicry work best when a predator is searching from a distance. When the predator gets close to the prey, and they are sure to be found, some prey switch methods, and flee run away or fight back.
This behaviour is almost always instinctive. If it looks like a leaf twisting in the wind, then it has to twist in the wind. Almost all forms of mimicry involve appropriate behaviour to reinforce the visual impression.
Not all animals use camouflage because there are situations where it is good to show themselves off. One case is the need to find and keep a mate. Many male animals have some bright colours during the mating season, or change their behaviour and come out into the open. Without this, they might not succeed in mating.
Their females, on the other hand, are usually dowdy and camouflaged. This pattern occurs in almost all animals where the male displays and the female chooses. There is at least one good reason the female stays camouflaged. The moment she is fertilized she carries the precious cargo: Animals that are dangerous, or foul to eat, usually advertise the fact. This is called warning or aposematic colouration.
It is the exact opposite of camouflage. Warning colours are vivid, often some of black, white, red, yellow. Tests show that warning colours definitely do deter predators. Some individual animals will die or receive damage while birds or mammals on the attack learn about the connection between colour and taste. However, if warning costs less than hiding, the animal benefits. And the advertising traits such as colours may serve other functions as well. The patterns may help mate identification within the species, for instance.
The fact that some animals are genuinely dangerous or noxious disgusting to eat gives the opportunity for mimicry based on warning colouration: English naturalist Henry Walter Bates first noticed that some distasteful butterflies resembled one another, which he wrote about in Both species benefit from a common pattern. They share the cost of predators learning of their foul taste.
Only one learning experience per predator might well be enough to deter it from eating both species. They often flew in groups which were highly visible. Despite this, they were avoided by birds. This is typical of aposematic warning colouration. The colouring of some species from the same area was so perfect that even experienced naturalists could not tell them apart on the wing.
Once they were collected, and set out on a board so the details could be seen, it became clear they were not all of the same species , and often not from the same biological families. Tests show that birds do learn what to eat by sampling when they are young. All aspects of this situation have been the subject of research. As he was exploring the Amazon valley in the s, Bates collected butterflies. Birds avoided them, so the mimics survived even though they were good food.
This was the first scientific account of mimicry. Hoverflies often visit flowers to feed on nectar. They are harmless insects which often mimic wasps and bees. They also fly in a slow, erratic fashion, rather like wasps and bees. Often their mimicry is not perfect, and you can easily tell them apart once they have settled. However, even an imperfect mimic might cause a bird to hesitate, and that may save their life.
They study how the models differ in their foul taste; and what happens when the ratio of mimics to models varies. Quite often, it is only the female which is a mimic; the male carries the normal appearance of its genus.
The females need more protection,  while the males need to mate. Batesian mimicry might damage the warning effect if the frequency of mimics became high, because more young birds would taste them and be encouraged to try again. The benefit of warning declines if there are more mimics. This may explain cases such as Papilio dardanus , an African swallowtail , whose females mimic a number of unpalatable species from the Danaidae: The advantage is probably greater for the females, because males do not show the mimetic patterns; sexual selection probably helps to maintain this difference.
These, and other issues, have been researched for many years. With this type of insect the life is split into stages see complete metamorphosis. The larva is the growth stage, the adult is the reproductive stage.
The larvae, too, show camouflage, aposematic colour and mimicry. It is the larvae that pick up the offensive chemicals from the plants they feed on. However, larvae do not show differences between male and female, because reproduction is not their function. In tropical countries, field research has shown that there are large numbers of species involved in mimicry.
Members of each ring tend to roost together at night, fly to similar habitats and at the same time of year. Vavilovian mimicry occurs in plants where a weed comes to look like a crop plant.
It is named after Nikolai Vavilov , a Russian plant breeder who discovered the idea. The end result is that predators and prey evolve in response to interactions with each other. These tight evolutionary relationships can result in coevolution , which is when two species evolve in a coordinated fashion by adapting to changes in each other. A good example of coevolution occurring between an herbivore and a plant is the coevolution of the Heliconius butterfly and passionflower vines.
Passionflower vines contain toxic compounds in their leaves that make them inedible to most herbivores. However, Heliconius larvae have evolved enzymes that break down the toxic compounds and allow them to eat the leaves of the vines.
Heliconius butterflies lay their bright yellow eggs on the passionflower leaves because they are a good food source for the larvae. Amazingly, some species of passionflower vines have bright yellow structures on their leaves that look like Heliconius eggs. These structures deter the butterflies from laying their eggs there, and more than that, these structures are actually nectaries that provide food for ants and other predatory insects that eat Heliconius eggs and larvae.
So the yellow structure defense is two-fold: It deters the butterflies from laying eggs, and it attracts predators of Heliconius larvae.
These back-and-forth counter-adaptations are what cause coevolution between predators and prey. A predator is an animal that hunts and kills other animals for food. While some animals rely on camouflage, others, especially those with chemical deterrents, have bright or distinctive markings that serve as a warning to would-be predators called warning coloration.
Some harmless animals take advantage of warning coloration and mimic other brightly colored species. There are also cases where two or more dangerous or unpalatable species all resemble one another. The end result of all of these interactions is that predators and prey evolve in response to interactions with each other. These tight evolutionary relationships can result in coevolution , when two species evolve in a coordinated fashion by adapting to changes in each other.
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Introduction Basic types of mimicry Warning systems The occurrence of mimicry among plants and animals The evolution of mimicry. View Homework Help - Mimicry and Camouflage from SCIENCE AP BIOLOGY at Lake Nona High. Amazing Nature: Mimicry and Camouflage 1. Define mimicry: The close external resemblance of an organism, the.
Mimicry is when one living thing resembles a different kind of living thing. Mimicry helps animals and plants in various ways. It can keep them from being eaten, or it can help . You might consider camouflage or mimicry to help you live another day. Tricks of the Trade I was watching a crime thriller movie the other night and I .